Specificity domain name service Whois, who are loggers

First of all, dotted all the i’s and erase possible dark spots in the definition of certain concepts. For example, you have yourself a clear idea of what the URL web-site, and what is meant by a domain name (CI). If we prescribe the following line:


it means the URL of a specific document (web page) belonging to a particular resource on the Internet. Users can access this page, by driving the URL in the browser address bar (here – what a browser). Part «http: //» is a protocol by which data is transmitted.

The word «kontakty» specifies the name of the document, which is part of a web resource that is located on one of the servers hosting. Domain name just identifies this web-resource and also is part of the URL. That is, the CI in this case looks like this:


If you click on the link given in the first paragraph of this article, you will learn more about the levels of DI and immediately determine that this second-level domain. It is registered in the zone com. In the same material provides information on what all domain zones exist, which, incidentally, is the domain of the top (first) level.

So, goldbusinessnet.com – domain of the second level, which can be registered in any of the official registrars. On them we’ll talk a little lower. It should be borne in mind that the first level of CI already defined by the organization IANA, which is centrally involved in this issue, and to choose the domain zone (upper level) follows from the number of existing and officially confirmed.

We should also pay attention to here what question. Generally speaking, according to international standards domain names are written in the Latin alphabet, but individual regions is possible to record domain names in the national language. Let’s say, for Russian Cyrillic domains are readily available, can serve as a model (with CI Level 1 .rf):


However, to this form of the domain name correctly displayed in the browser, cross reference is made to record in DNS. For more information about the system CSN again follow the link given at the beginning of Lent. Recoding enables you to enter into your domain name is in Cyrillic.

Register CI carefully systematized and below we look at who is authorized to register Domain Names, where you can get information about a particular domain and what steps need to be taken to implement the verification of the domain name and, if necessary, to buy it.

The ICANN reform whois database arises

What is the purpose of the public database containing the data of the owners of each domain name and what data should be displayed in the same? This is the question that was one of the central debates of the last meeting of ICANN (Internet regulator maximum) held in Marrakech between 26 and 30 last April.

The database of domain names, known as Whois contains information on the name of the person or organization owner of the domain, contact details and technical information of the domain. Under the current structure of ICANN, all accredited by that body registrars are required to collect and publicly display such data through the Whois.
The Whois is essential to initiate investigations against many of the illegal activities taking place on the Internet such as cybersquatting, spamming, phishing fraud through music piracy, child pornography … because it allows tool or at least provides clues to the identity of those who carry out these activities.

However, ICANN has echoed the views of certain groups who claim that their personal data appear not published in this database, claiming the possibility that it is possible to register a domain without revealing who they are or where they are . They argue that the purpose of the “Whois” system should be limited strictly to resolve technical and non-legal issues, and it is possible to have other means to identify those individuals who commit illegal activities, without being necessary to publish personal data of each holder domain.

The balance of interests is not easy, as there is usually a reluctance justified by many individuals to make their data accessible by the general public. To which also added sometimes a difficult fit with the different national laws on data protection. However, with the growth of Internet the number of activities involving the violation of law and the rights of others is widening, so certainly it is necessary to maintain efficient mechanisms for investigation and identification of offenders subject.

Eternal problems with Whois

Question Whois costs to ICANN on the agenda for many years. In 2009, ICANN and the US Department of Commerce signed a commitment under which the corporation must including solve the problems associated with the service WhoIs. These issues are discussed for many years at different levels and in ICANN, and in government, and the industry: Should be anonymous WhoIs, should be access to the service free of charge, what information should be displayed there, which rules in this regard must act and how to deal with spammers who use their own purposes information about the owners of domain names. And many domain owners refer to themselves in the Whois is Osama bin Laden, the Sherlock Holmes is God.

Whois questions appeared in the ICANN Strategic Plan for the next 4 years, announced in the last year. Whois problems discussed at a separate meeting of the Governmental Committee to ICANN in Singapore last summer. Representatives of the governments of Eastern Europe then urged at ICANN secure customer identification procedures registrars. But the rest of the members of the GAC, and loggers themselves opposed this initiative, considering that 23% – it is not as significant a figure to make changes in the rules of registration, significantly complicates the procedure of registration of domains for users and registrars.

In our country, in 2009, had a similar initiative, according to which the Registrar had to demand from clients copies of documents to identify them. Registrars then got a lot of false documents, were forced to spend resources on the storage and processing of all this information, as a result of last year’s procedure simplified, and authentication of documents now to register names in RU and the Russian Federation is not required.

In the spring of last year in Russia ceased to show the data of individuals in the Whois service in accordance with the law on personal data. The same practice is followed in .FR domains and .CAT. Representatives of the latter explained that if someone wants to contact the owner of the domain – an individual, he can fill in a special online form; notification of this comes to the domain owner, which tried to contact, and he will decide: whether or not to answer. Doing the same intermediary firms, which for a fee replace data in Whois on their own, and to transmit this letter to the owner.

Do not show data about individuals and Ukraine.

A company VeriSign, which administers the area COM and NET, did not lead a single, centralized database Whois. Recorders that enable us to obtain the name of the zones and .COM .NET, now use a so-called “thin” model Whois, according to which each accredited registrar manages its own database on the owners names. ICANN wants to go to the administrator “thick” model, but the discussion always postponed. How are deposited and global reforms and Whois side of the ICANN.